A special present to celebrate this Darwin Day: the publication of the first paper from my global collaboration to study patterns and processes in biodiversity among the world’s cities. This first fruit of a collaboration that started 3 years ago under the aegis of the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) in Santa Barbara has just been published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B:
M. F. J. Aronson, F. A. La Sorte, C. H. Nilon, M. Katti, M. A. Goddard, C. A. Lepczyk, P. S. Warren, N. S. G. Williams, S. Cilliers, B. Clarkson, C. Dobbs, R. Dolan, M. Hedblom, S. Klotz, J. L. Kooijmans, I. Kuhn, I. MacGregor-Fors, M. McDonnell, U. Mortberg, P. Pysek, S. Siebert, J. Sushinsky, P. Werner, and M. Winter
A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers
Proc R Soc B 2014 281: 20133330-20133330 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3330
The paper has 24 co-authors, from 10 countries, and involved a number of other collaborators who contributed data in some way. It is easily the biggest scale project I’ve ever been involved with, and one that promises to be very productive over the next few years. We started in 2011 by building perhaps the largest database of bird and plant diversity in cities, with 147 cities analyzed in this paper, and have continued to work on analyzing the data and expanding the database. This paper is the first in what we plan to be a series of articles analyzing the distribution of bird and plant species in urban areas worldwide to develop a deeper understanding of how cities interact with biodiversity. As such, this overview article has been a big first step in getting our work through peer review and into publication so the rest of the world—you—can read and see what we have discovered.
It is gratifying to see that there is broad interest in our results. The BBC News posted a report covering our paper even before the paper was available online, and the BBC World Service will shortly be interviewing Mark Goddard, one of the coauthors. Meanwhile, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s program The World Today spoke to coauthor Nick Williams earlier today, and you can hear his interview online in the show’s podcast. US media hasn’t quite woken up yet, so let’s see how much interest there is on these shores.
I will be writing more about this research, and explaining our findings in greater detail in a blog post or two over the coming few days (as and when I find time to finish writing the posts in between classes and committee meetings). For now, let me share this press release I helped put together for NCEAS:
February 12, 2014
Cities Support More Native Biodiversity Than Previously Thought
Researchers at UCSB’s NCEAS compile the largest global dataset of urban birds and plants, which shows world’s cities retain a unique natural palette.
(Santa Barbara, Calif.) — The rapid conversion of natural lands to cement-dominated urban centers is causing great losses in biodiversity. Yet, according to a new study involving 147 cities worldwide, surprisingly high numbers of plant and animal species persist and even flourish in urban environments — to the tune of hundreds of bird species and thousands of plant species in a single city.
Contrary to conventional wisdom that cities are a wasteland for biodiversity, the study found that while a few species — such as pigeons and annual meadow grass — are shared across cities, overall the mix of species in cities reflects the unique biotic heritage of their geographic location. The findings of the study conducted by a working group at UC Santa Barbara’s National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) and funded by the National Science Foundation were published today in the Proceedings B, a journal of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences.
“While urbanization has caused cities to lose large numbers of plants and animals, the good news is that cities still retain endemic native species, which opens the door for new policies on regional and global biodiversity conservation,” said lead author and NCEAS working group member Myla F. J. Aronson, a research scientist in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
The study highlights the value of green space in cities, which have become important refuges for native species and migrating wildlife. This phenomenon has been named the Central Park Effect because of the surprisingly large number of species found in New York’s Central Park, a relatively small island of green within a metropolis.
Unlike previous urban biodiversity research, this study looks beyond the local impacts of urbanization and considers overall impacts on global biodiversity. The research team created the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities).
Findings show that many plant and animal species, including threatened and endangered species, can flourish in cities, even as others decline or disappear entirely. Cities with more natural habitats support more bird and plant species and experience less loss in species as the city grows. Overall, cities supported far fewer species (about 92 percent less for birds and 75 percent less for native plants) than expected for similar areas of undeveloped land.
“We do pay a steep price in biodiversity as urbanization expands,” said coauthor Frank La Sorte, a research associate at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. “But even though areas that have been urbanized have far fewer species, we found that those areas retain a unique regional flavor. That uniqueness is something that people can take pride in retaining and rebuilding.”
Conserving green spaces, restoring native plant species and adding biodiversity-friendly habitats within urban landscapes could, in turn, support more bird and plant species. “It is true that cities have already lost a substantial proportion of their region’s biodiversity,” said Madhusudan Katti, a faculty member in the Department of Biology at California State University, Fresno. “This can be a cup half-full or half-empty scenario. If we act now and rethink the design of our urban landscapes, cities can play a major role in conserving the remaining native plant and animal species and help bring back more of them.”
The human experience is increasingly defined within an urban context, the authors noted. They maintain it is still possible for a connection to the natural world to persist in an urban setting, but it will require planning, conservation and education.
“Given that the majority of people now live in cities, this group’s synthesis of data on plant and urban plant and animal diversity should be of broad interest to ecologists as well as urban and landscape planners,” said Frank Davis, NCEAS director.
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Note to editors: Frank Davis is available at firstname.lastname@example.org or at (805) 892-2502. Downloadable images are available at http://www.news.ucsb.edu/node/013947/cities-support-more-native-biodiversity-previously-thought.
Of course, feel free to also contact me if you have questions about the paper or our ongoing research into global urban biodiversity patterns, and if you need a reprint pdf of the paper. I would love to hear your thoughts on this work.