Tag Archives: bird

Meet the Nucifraga

The genus Nucifraga includes some corvids that don’t get much attention by the general public, but that are highly, highly important to vast numbers of ecosystems.

The Nucifraga are commonly known as the nutcrackers.  Nucifraga literally means “nut shatterer” in Latin (nux, nucis = nut; frangere = to shatter) and as their name indicates, they specialize in eating nuts, specifically nutritious, high-fat nuts from pine cones.  Nuts aren’t the only thing they eat, but nuts are certainly the bulk of their diets along with invertebrates, small birds, eggs, and a bit of carrion.  The relationship of the nutcracker to the nuts they eat is one of the most fascinating biological mutualisms (a relationship beneficial to both species involved) seen in nature.  In some cases, the trees whose seeds the nutcrackers feed on rely upon the birds to disperse their seeds and plant them.  The planting of these tree species (such as whitebark pines and Asian stone pines) in otherwise cleared areas creates the foundation for colonization of other plant species and the creation of forests.  The story is far more complicated and interesting than what I just typed, but I think corvids and how they effect forest ecology will be relegated to a post of its own.  In the meantime, the Coyot.es Network’s own Chris Clarke wrote an article about the peril of whitebark pines and their corvid partners, “An Ancient Partnership Put in Danger“.

Another amazing attribute of nutcrackers is their memory.  Nutcrackers stay in their home ranges throughout the year, which tend to get a lot of snowfall and reach low temperatures with very little food.  To overcome this they cache (hide and place objects in the ground and crevices) seeds and recover them in the winter in order to make it through the winter.  (This caching behavior is how they plant the trees, mentioned above.)  In order to have enough seeds to survive in the winter they cache tens of thousands of seeds during the summer.  Remarkably, they recover 70-90% of those seeds in the winter.  Just think about that for a minute.  Some nutcrackers cache up to 30,000 seeds and they remember the locations of the caches, which contain 1-3 seeds, so that’s about 15,000 locations.  These caches are made during the summer, so in the winter the snow obscures and changes the landscape. This means the birds have to use various levels of landmarks and triangulation to remember the locations of the caches (sometimes this even requires the birds to completely burrow under the snow to get to the caches), along with toting an impressive long-term memory.  Okay, so they cache food in ~15,000 locations, which are obscured in the winter, and they recover food from ~11,250 locations despite the locations being obscured.  Let that sink in for a minute and think about last time you lost your keys or phone or wallet or anything.

What allows these birds to remember such an astounding amount of cache locations is an enlarged portion of the brain called the hippocampus, which is responsible for spatial memory.  However, their incredible memory comes at a cost.  There is only so much space in the skull for a brain, and only so much energy that can be devoted to brain matter, so other parts of the brain are reduced to compensate for the enlarged hippocampus.  Studies looking at the problem solving capabilities of nutcrackers makes them the dunces of the corvid classroom (to be fair, they are still pretty capable among birds in general).  These birds are memory specialists and they are certainly the champions of their specialty, but I point out their lack of problem solving capabilities because it has serious implications for how we define “smart” or “intelligent” animals.  Certainly in a memory task to “prove” intelligence the nutcrackers would defeat any challenger, but ask them to solve a novel problem and they flounder.  Does the inability to solve novel problems like other corvids make them any less cool?  No, it just makes them really interesting specialists in the family.

So who are the nutcrackers then?  There are three species, with multiple subspecies, all in the genus Nucifraga (as I mentioned above).  Let’s say hello!

Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)

Photo of a Clark’s Nutcracker (with bulging sublingual pouch) by Mike Ross, taken in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado.

This is the North American species of nutcracker found in the western half of North America from Colorado to the Pacific, from southern British Colombia and Alberta to southern New Mexico and Arizona.  Most studies involving memory and the mutualistic relationship between seed cachers and pine trees have been done with this species.


Spotted Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes)

Photo of a Spotted Nutcracker taken by Paul Cools in Veldhoven, North Brabant Province, Netherlands.

It cracks me up that the species name for these birds means the same thing as the genus name, just in Greek instead of Latin (from karuokataktes where karuon = nut; katagnumito = shatter).  Apparently they are so good at shattering nuts they got named for it twice!

This species has a huge range with 8 subspecies.  Generally the subspecies are divided into two group:, the Northern group, which ranges throughout Europe and Northern Asia to Japan, and the Southern group, which ranges throughout southern China and the Himalayas.

Subspecies of the Northern group, which tend to have more white spotting:

  1. N. c. caryocatactes (the nut shattering, nut shattering, nut shatterer)
  2. N. c. macrorhynchos
  3. N. c. japonica
  4. N. c. rothschildi

Subspecies of the Southern group, which tend to have less spotting/a more brown appearance:

  1. N. c. interdicta
  2. N. c. hemispila
  3. N. c. owstoni
  4. N. c. macella


Large-Spotted/Kashmir Nutcracker (Nucifraga multipunctata)

Photo of a Large-Spotted Nutcracker take by Menno Hornman taken in Chitral Gol National Park, Pakistan.

This species used to be a subspecies of Spotted Nutcracker, but has since been deemed its own species.  These birds have a relatively small distribution in the western Himalayan forests of northern India and Pakistan and presumably have similar habits of the other Spotted Nutcrackers, but are sufficiently genetically distinct to warrant being their own species.  They have a lot more, and larger, white spots, giving them a whiter appearance; both their common and species name point out this fact (multipunctata is Latin meaning multi =many and punctatus = spotted).  Ornithologists are extremely creative with naming, clearly.


Beautiful Jay

This photograph popped up on my FaceBook feed and I had to share it here:

Photograph of a beautiful jay (Cyanolyca pulchra) by Andrew Spencer via the Tropical Birding Tours FaceBook page.

The actual, English, common name of this bird is in fact “beautiful jay” and they are a part of a genus of jays (Cyanolyca) that are all a variation of blue with a black mask.  In fact “Cyano” comes from the Greek kuanos meaning dark-blue and lukos meaning a type of crow (“pulchra” from the Latin pulcher, literally means beautiful…so “beautiful dark-blue type of crow”).  All of the Cyanolyca are found in Central America (southern Mexico on south) and along the Andes in South America.  The beautiful jay is particularly found in wet and subtropical forests on the Pacific slope of the Andes in Colombia and northern Ecuador.  They appear to utilize primary forest almost exclusively and the population seems to have been declining since the 1970s.

To be honest, whether or not this species is truly declining, and at what rate, is little known, as the beautiful jay itself is woefully understudied.  However, we do know that this jay is rare and localized, making it very vulnerable to habitat disruption and destruction.  Their social structure, mating strategy, and other behaviors are unknown at this point as well.

Being such a rare and relatively mysterious species, it’s quite a treat to have such a wonderful photograph shared on FaceBook.  Thank you Andrew!

An Introduction To Corvids

I am beyond, and I mean beyond flattered and excited that Audubon California featured my blog on their FaceBook page (THANK YOU!).  With such an influx of new viewers, it made me realize a brief introduction to corvids might be in order, for general knowledge.  Some of you may already know this information, but I think it’s worthwhile putting out there for people just getting interested in corvids, and birds in general.

Edit: I don’t follow Twitter, so I just got word that apparently my blog has also been getting tweeted around there.  WOW!  THANK YOU EVERYONE!!!!

So just what are Corvids?

Corvids are a group of birds, specifically birds found in the family Corvidae, which is a subgroup of the much larger group of perching/songbirds (Passerines).  Members of the corvidae include crows, ravens, magpies, jays, treepies, choughs, nutcrackers, the piapiac, and the Stresemann’s bushcrow.  This means that all of these birds share a common corvid ancestor that radiated into ~23 genera containing ~126 species originating in the Australasian region of the world (now found everywhere except Antarctica).  This means this blog has a lot of species to draw from and talk about.  Of course, the most charismatic and well-known of the corvids are the crows (which includes the ravens, rook, and jackdaws), as well as jays and magpies.  I hope to touch on at least some of the lesser-known corvids and convince you that they too are interesting!

Let’s take a moment to get something clear about magpies.  Not all birds with the word “magpie” in the name are corvids.  You have magpie geese, magpie shrikes, and, of course, the Australian magpie, none of which are corvids!  I can’t tell you how many times I find articles about corvids that feature an Australian magpie or a currawong (or any kind of Cracticid) photograph to accompany.  However, you now know that they are not corvids!  Go forth and correct your friends and family!  BE that guy/gal! 😉


Why do you care about them so much?  Why should I care about them?

Personally, I find them endlessly fascinating.  Corvids have such rich social structure, behavior, and ecology, and many members have shown feats of intelligence that rivals, and sometimes exceeds, that of many primates (including chimpanzees!).  How’s that for bird-brained?  I also find them aesthetically beautiful.  You may wonder what’s so beautiful about big black birds, but their form is so elegant and many of the corvids are actually quite colorful!  The oriental magpies and the new world jays have an astonishing array of colors, interesting crests, and some have extravagantly long tails.  However, my heart truly does belong to those “big, black birds”…so I have to admit that this blog will likely be biased toward them.  (I have spent the past six years of my life studying a population of wild American crows [Corvus brachyrhynchos] and every passing day they just endear themselves to me more and more.)

You should probably care because corvids play interesting roles in the ecology of the natural world and, like any other species, warrant study and investigation to understand them further.  Closer to home, you should probably care because you likely have corvids in your backyard, neighborhood, park, city, etc.  Many corvids have adapted to the challenges of human-dominated environments and thrived.  Because of their ability to take advantage of us, corvids are featured porminently in our myth, folklore, and are deeply embedded in much of our past and current culture.  These are birds that made our ancestors sit up and take notice (mostly by stealing our food and being a general nuisance of themselves), and I think it’s just as important to notice them today.  The secret lives of these birds are endlessly fascinating and will likely surprise you!

So, I hope you enjoy this blog and learn something about my favorite group of birds.  I hope they become your favorite group too!

Finally, here is a photo of a posture crows take on when they are observing humans…because I really like pictures.


The Alala

Did you know that one of the world’s most endangered species of bird is a crow?  The Hawaiian crow—ʻAlalā to native Hawaiians—is a species of crow endemic to Hawaii and is currently extinct in the wild, but conservation efforts to save and breed the species has taken the captive population to over 100 birds.  Expected reintroduction dates for this species are tentatively set for 2014.  Here’s a blog article (with video) about the progress of the Hawaiian crow.

(Image from the San Diego Zoo blogs.)

Crow Research Group

This is the video accompanying the article my university wrote about my adviser, Anne Clark, and our study population of crows.  I’ve spent six years of my life working with these specific birds, and hours upon hours at the compost site in the film, haha.

Apparently ABC News picked up the story as well!

Also, I promise to explain exactly why it’s been so long since I updated.  Next post though!