Tag Archives: endangered species

The 45 Crow Species

It’s been a while…a bit over two years in fact. I completed my doctorate and had to spend a few years figuring out the next stages in my life and how I fit in the world. I’m still working on that second part, but things are a bit more stable in general. I now teach at a STEM school that I love (getting oriented with teaching secondary school took up ALL my available time) and I just got back from helping out with the Mariana Crow project on Rota/Luta this summer. I got some inspiring words there to continue with my blog, even though I often wonder if it’s having much of an impact. Thing is, corvids in general are still a passion of mine and continuing to communicate to the public about them is important to me, so I want to carry on.

Enough about my life, this is a blog post meant to help make people aware that there are ~45 species of crows (the genus Corvus). I find most people think there is a crow, raven, rook, and jackdaw, and that’s it. No, my friends, there are many different species of large, black Corvids out there and I’d like to introduce you to them by telling you what their names mean, where they are found, and their closest relatives. In an effort not to reinvent the wheel, I will link to information pages already built about each species. Some species we know a lot about and some species have only been documented a handful of times. I will also group them based on region and their closest relatives, because I’m that kind of a dork.  Note that Corvus literally means “crow/raven” so the meanings of each name will be the species designation (the second word in the scientific name). I will also list how many subspecies each species has, but will not specifically spell them out; those can be found in the associated links. Finally, the word “raven” does not actually denote a related group, it’s just a word used for some of crow species.

A few fun facts before we get started:

*Some systematics ornithologists think the two species of jackdaws should be put in their own genus apart from other crows, genus Coloeus.

*Some systematic ornithologists also want to see the thick-billed and white-necked ravens put into their own genus apart from other crows, genus Corvultur.

*The largest bird in genus Corvus, also being the largest corvid, is the thick-billed raven, weighing a whopping 1.5 kg (3.3 lbs).

*The smallest bird in genus Corvus is the Daurian Jackdaw at a mere ~120 g (0.26 lb).

*Most species of crows are found in the Asian region. This is because the genus originally evolved in this region and radiated across the world from there!

*Crows are found on all continents EXCEPT South America and Antarctica. It’s thought that they never expanded into South America because the toucans had already filled the niche that crows would have taken.

*Some of the most endangered species of birds on the planet are in genus Corvus, including the Banggai crow (<250 individuals estimated left), Mariana crow (<200 individuals estimated left), and the Hawaiian crow (extinct in the wild, with the only extant populations, around 125 individuals, in breeding/recovery facilities).

Without further ado, below are listings for the ~45 crow species currently recognized. Note that I say “currently” because with new data come new species elevations or demotions to subspecies, which may change soon after this post (for example, the Mesopotamian crow is often treated as a subspecies of hooded crow, but sometimes as its own species). Please click the photos to go to their original source.

  • Daurian Jackdaw
    • Scientific Name: Corvus dauuricus
    • Meaning: Comes from the Dauria region of Siberia, though the bird has a broader range than just Dauria.
    • Where in the World: East Asia
    • Closest Relative: Western Jackdaw
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Daurian Jackdaw photo by Sergey Yeliseev.

  • Western Jackdaw (Eurasian Jackdaw)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus monedula
    • Meaning: “to eat money” and is the literal Latin word for the jackdaw. It comes from a Greek myth where the greedy Arne of Thrace (a mythological princess) was turned into a jackdaw after betraying her country to Minos of Crete, for gold, and made to forever be attracted to gold or shiny objects.
    • Where in the World: Europe, Central Asia, and the Middle East
    • Closest Relative: Daurian Jackdaw
    • Number of Subspecies: 4
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Western jackdaw photo by “hedera.baltica”

  • Jamaican Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus jamaicensis
    • Meaning: “Of Jamaica”, referring to them being endemic to and only found on Jamaica.
    • Where in the World: Jamaica
    • Closest Relative: White-necked Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Jamaican crow photo found on Geocaching.com

  • White-Necked Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus leucognaphalus
    • Meaning: “White mouth” which may just refer to the white feather bases on the neck/throat region of the crow. The common name is misleading as the bird is entirely black, which non-visible white feather bases. The most unique thing with these crows are their beautiful red-orange eyes!
    • Where in the World: Hispaniola, now extinct on Puerto Rico
    • Closest Relative: Jamaican Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      White-necked crow photo by “ZankaM”

  • Cuban Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus nasicus
    • Meaning: “Large-nosed”, referring to the bill.
    • Where in the World: Cuba and Caicos Islands
    • Closest Relative: Jamaican and White-necked Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Cuban crows photo by Dubi Shapiro.

  • Black Crow (Cape Crow)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus capensis
    • Meaning: Named for the Cape of Good Hope in Africa where they are typically found.
    • Where in the World: East-central and Southwest Africa
    • Closest Relative: Not well resolved, but right now best connected to the Fish, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Palm, and Cuban Crow lineage.
    • Number of Subspecies: 2
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Black crow photo by Dave Curtis

  • Sinaloa Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus sinaloae
    • Meaning: Named for the Sinaloa region of Mexico.
    • Where in the World: Western Mexico
    • Closest Relative: Tamaulipas (they used to be lumped together as the “Mexican Crow”) and Fish Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Sinaloa crow photo by Petr Myska.

  • Tamaulipas Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus imparatus
    • Meaning: Means “unprepared or unprovided”, and I’m unsure why they got this designation.
    • Where in the World: Eastern Mexico into Southern Texas (USA).
    • Closest Relative: Sinaloa (they used to be lumped together as the “Mexican Crow”) and Fish Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Tamaulipas crow photo by Luis Enrique Andrade.

  • Fish Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus ossifragus
    • Meaning: “Bone breaker”, which may come from them eating carrion.
    • Where in the World: Eastern North America
    • Closest Relative: Tamaulipas and Sinaloa Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase, All About Birds

      Fish crow photo by Paul Tavares

  • Palm Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus palmarum
    • Meaning: “Of palm trees” relating to the trees they are often seen in.
    • Where in the World: Cuba and Hispaniola
    • Closest Relative: Fish, Sinaloa, and Tamaulipas Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 2
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Palm crow photo by Dax M. and Roman E.

  • Hawaiian Crow/ʻAlalā (EXTINCT IN THE WILD)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus hawaiiensis
    • Meaning: “From Hawai’i”
    • Where in the World: Extinct in the wild, but endemic to Hawai’i. Found in captive rearing facilities on Hawai’i with ongoing efforts to re-introduce them into the wild.
    • Closest Relative: Rook (oddly enough)
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, AvibaseʻAlalā Project

      Hawaiian crow photo from San Diego Zoo Nooz.

  • Rook
    • Scientific Name: Corvus frugilegus
    • Meaning: “Crop-picking or fruit eating” from rooks commonly being found in farmland.
    • Where in the World: All across Eurasia and introduced to New Zealand.
    • Closest Relative: Hawaiian Crow (oddly enough)
    • Number of Subspecies: 2
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Rook photo by Brian Snelson.

  • Dwarf Raven (Somali Crow)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus edithae
    • Meaning: Named for Edith Cole, a British botanist and entomologist in Somaliland, Africa.
    • Where in the World: Eastern Central Africa
    • Closest Relative: Pied Crow (they sometimes naturally hybridize) and Brown-Necked Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Dwarf raven photo by Marco Valentini.

  • Pied Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus albus
    • Meaning: “White”, for the white patch prominent on the crow.
    • Where in the World: Southern Africa and parts of Central Africa.
    • Closest Relative: Dwarf Raven (they sometimes naturally hybridize) and Brown-necked Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Pied crow photo by Krzysztof Blachowiak.

  • Brown-necked Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus ruficollis
    • Meaning: “Red or ruddy necked” referring the the reddish-brown plumage on the head, neck, and chest in the species.
    • Where in the World: Northern Africa and the Middle East.
    • Closest Relative: Pied Crow and Dwarf Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 2 (maybe)
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Brown-necked raven photo by Daniele Occhiato.

  • Fan-tailed Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus rhipidurus
    • Meaning: Literally means “fan-tailed” referring to the shape of their unusually short tail in flight.
    • Where in the World: Parts of Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula
    • Closest Relative: Pied Crow, Dwarf Raven, and Brown-necked Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 2
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Fan-tailed raven photo by Joniec Naturalnie.

  • White-necked Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus albicollis
    • Meaning: Literally means “white-necked” referring to the white patch on the back of this species’ neck.
    • Where in the World: Central down through Southern Africa
    • Closest Relative: Thick-billed Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      White-necked ravens photo by buchert.

  • Thick-billed Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus crassirostris
    • Meaning: Meaning “thick or heavy bill” referring to this species’ unusually thick and massive bill.
    • Where in the World: Ethiopia, Africa
    • Closest Relative: White-necked Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Thick-billed raven photo by Mike Barth.

  • Chihuahuan Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus cryptoleucus
    • Meaning: Means “hidden white” because, like the white-necked crow, they have very white bases to their feathers, though these bases are usually hidden with the bird looking entirely black.
    • Where in the World: Mexico and the Southern Interior USA
    • Closest Relative: Northern Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, AvibaseAll About Birds

      Chihuahuan raven photo by Rick and Nora Bowers.

  • Northern Raven (Common Raven)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus corax
    • Meaning: Means “to croak”, referring to the sound they make, and is synonymous with the bird itself.
    • Where in the World: A Holarctic species, meaning they are found everywhere in nearly the entire Northern Hemisphere
    • Closest Relative: Chihuahuan Raven, Fan-tailed Raven, Pied Crow, and Brown-Necked Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 12 (including one that had a naturally-occurring piebald morph found in the Faroe Islands, now extinct, Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus)
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, AvibaseAll About Birds

      Northern raven photo by Jennifer Campbell-Smith (me).

  • Hooded Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus cornix
    • Meaning: Another word that literally means “crow”.
    • Where in the World: Most of Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia
    • Closest Relative: Carrion Crow (sometimes still lumped as a subspecies of Carrion Crow)
    • Number of Subspecies: 2 (maybe)
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, Avibase

      Hooded crow photo by Luboš Mráz.

  • Carrion Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus corone
    • Meaning: “To croak” and also serves as another word that simply means “crow”.
    • Where in the World: Western Europe and Asia.
    • Closest Relative: Hooded Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 5 to 6 (depending on the hooded crow’s status as species or subspecies at the time)
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Carrion crow photo by Aurélien Audevard.

  • Collared Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus torquatus or Corvus pectoralis
    • Meaning: Torquatus means “collar or torque” (a piece of metal neck jewelry) referring to the white markings around the neck. Pectoralis means “of the breast” referring also to the white markings that extend across the breast of the bird.
    • Where in the World: Eastern China
    • Closest Relative: Hooded and Carrion Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Collared crow photo by Charles Lam.

  • Northwestern Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus caurinus
    • Meaning: “Northwest wind” referring to the crows being found in the Pacific Northwest of North America
    • Where in the World: Along the coasts of the Pacific Northwest, North America.
    • Closest Relative: American Crow (used to be a subspecies of American crow; scientists still argue over this)
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, AvibaseAll About Birds

      Northwestern crow photo by “Nebrot”.

  • American Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus brachyrhynchos
    • Meaning: “Short bill or nose” referring to their relatively petite bill.
    • Where in the World: North America
    • Closest Relative: Northwestern Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 3
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase, All About Birds

      American crow photo by Jennifer Campbell-Smith (me).

  • White-billed Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus woodfordi
    • Meaning: Named for Charles Woodford, a British naturalist.
    • Where in the World: Islands of Choiseul, Isabel, and Guadalcanal in the Northern Solomon Islands
    • Closest Relative: Bougainville and Brown-Headed Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      White-billed crow photo by Lars Petersson.

  • Bougainville Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus meeki
    • Meaning: Named for Albert Meek, and English explorer.
    • Where in the World: Islands of Bougainville and Shortland in the Solomon Islands
    • Closest Relative: Unknown, but likely the White-billed Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Bougainville crow illustration (no known photos of a live bird!) from the Handbook of the Birds of the World.

      Bougainville crow skin from the American Museum of Natural History photo by Jennifer Campbell-Smith (me).

  • Brown-headed Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus fuscicapillus
    • Meaning: “Dusky or brown head” for the dark brown feathers on their heads and necks.
    • Where in the World: Northwest New Guinea and the Aru Islands
    • Closest Relative: White-billed Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Brown-headed crow juvenile photo by Mehd Halaouate.

      Brown-headed crow adult study skin photo from the American Museum of Natural History by Jennifer Campbell-Smith (me).

  • Long-billed Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus validus
    • Meaning: “Strong or stout” for their unusually long bills.
    • Where in the World: Moluccan islands of Morotai, Obi, and Halmahera
    • Closest Relative: Grey Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Long-billed crow photo by Yann Muzika.

  • Grey Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus tristis
    • Meaning: “Sad or gloomy” possibly referring to their dingy (but unique!) grey plumage.
    • Where in the World: New Guinea
    • Closest Relative: Long-billed Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Grey crow photo by Brian J. Coates.

  • Forest Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus tasmanicus
    • Meaning: Found in Tasmania and though they occur elsewhere in Australia, the specimen that was originally described probably came form Tasmania.
    • Where in the World: Tasmania and southern mainland Australia
    • Closest Relative: Little and Australian Ravens
    • Number of Subspecies: 2
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Forest raven photo by Paul van Giersbergen.

  • Little Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus mellori
    • Meaning: Named for Joseph Mellor, an English chemist.
    • Where in the World: Southeast Australia
    • Closest Relative: Australian Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Little raven photo by Toby Hudson.

  • Australian Raven
    • Scientific Name: Corvus coronoides
    • Meaning: “Resembling a carrion crow” likely given when British explorers first saw that it was a black corvid in Australia, so they named it according to a bird back home that they thought it looked like, the carrion crow.
    • Where in the World: South and Eastern Australia
    • Closest Relative: Little Raven
    • Number of Subspecies: 2
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Australian raven photo by Peter Strauss.

  • Torresian Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus orru
    • Meaning: Unsure, but likely based on a Papuan name.
    • Where in the World: Australia and New Guinea as well as surrounding islands
    • Closest Relative: Bismark and Little Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 3
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Torresian crow photo by David Taylor.

  • Bismarck Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus insularis
    • Meaning: “Insula of an island” likely from them inhabiting islands.
    • Where in the World: Bismarck Archipelago
    • Closest Relative: Torresian Crow (previously a subspecies of Torresian Crow)
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Bismarck crow photo by Lars Petersson.

  • Little Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus bennetti
    • Meaning: Named for George Bennett, a British biologist.
    • Where in the World: Australia
    • Closest Relative: Torresian Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Little crow photo by Don Hadden.

  • Banggai Crow (CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus unicolor
    • Meaning: “Plain or uniform” probably referring to their all black coloration.
    • Where in the World: Island of Banggai
    • Closest Relative: Piping and Slender-Billed Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Banggai crow photo by Philippe Verbelen.

  • Piping Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus typicus
    • Meaning: The “type” or “typical” crow, which is interesting considering their entire torso and upper neck is white!
    • Where in the World: Island of Sulawesi
    • Closest Relative: Slender-billed and Banggai Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Piping crow photo by Pete Morris/Birdquest.

  • Violaceous Crow (Violet Crow)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus violaceus
    • Meaning: “Violet-colored” from the violet sheen on their plumage.
    • Where in the World: Philippines and Moluccas
    • Closest Relative: Slender-billed Crow (used to be a subspecies of Slender-billed Crow)
    • Number of Subspecies: 4
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Violaceous crow photo by Dubi Shapiro.

  • Slender-Billed Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus enca
    • Meaning: Enca is the Javanese word for “crow”.
    • Where in the World: Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and some other nearby islands
    • Closest Relative: Violaceous, Piping, and New Caledonian Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 7
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Slender-billed crow photo by Rob Hutchinson.

  • New Caledonian Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus moneduloides
    • Meaning: “Resembling a jackdaw” because again, it reminded European explorers of a bird back home, so they just gave it a name that literally meant “kind of like that bird back home, the jackdaw”.
    • Where in the World: Island of New Caledonia and introduced to the nearby island of Maré.
    • Closest Relative: Slender-billed Crow
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      New Caledonian crow photo by “Corvus moneduloides”.

  • Flores Crow (ENDANGERED)
    • Scientific Name: Corvus florensis
    • Meaning: Named for the island of Flores in the Sundas of Indonesia.
    • Where in the World: Flores, within the Sundas of Indonesia
    • Closest Relative: Likely Slender-billed, Banggai, and Piping Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 0
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Flores crow photo by Indonesia Tourism.

  • Large-billed Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus macrorhynchos
    • Meaning: “Long/large bill/nose” referring to their large bills.
    • Where in the World: Eastern Asia, Indian Himalayas, Philippines, and a number of East Indian Islands.
    • Closest Relative: House and Mariana Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 11 (some of which may be elevated to species status soon or have been in the past, such as the jungle crow)
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      Large-billed crow photo by Tushar Bhagwat.

  • Mariana Crow (CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)
  • House Crow
    • Scientific Name: Corvus splendens
    • Meaning: “Brilliant or glittering” likely referring to the slight iridescent sheen on their black feathers.
    • Where in the World: India, but introduced to ports in the Middle East and Africa.
    • Closest Relative: Large-billed and likely Mariana Crows
    • Number of Subspecies: 4
    • Info Links: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Wikipedia, IUCN, Avibase

      House crow photo by Peter Vercruijsse.

       

Information in this post is a result of research utilizing the sources linked, but mostly the following sources: